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Study of professional competence requirements for electricians  was run among Polish, German and Portuguese employers (second quarter of 2016), directly in the work environment and for the real job positions for this profession.

The study was conducted using a survey method with the use of diagnostic questionnaires standardized for all countries. Questionnaire included i.a. proposals for professional competence, personal and social competence and the key competence for the profession.

Below there is presented comparative analysis of competence for electricians from the point of view of Polish, German and Portuguese employers.
The rounded indicator values equal to or greater than 3.5 indicate the importance of the competence for performing professional task in the profession.

 

Details in the report “Comparative study of professional competences required for typical professions of electrician and automotive technician based on examples in Germany, Poland and Portugal”

 

Professional competences for the profession of electrician 

Table 1. Degree of professional competencies in the profession of an electrician according to the opinion of employers

No.

List of professional competencies

Poland

Germany

Portugal

Importance indicator

K1

Installation and maintenance of electrical machinery and equipment

3.9

5.0

4.1

K2

Installation and maintenance of electrical systems

4.5

4.5

4.0

Source: Own study

 

Professional competencies K1

Installation and maintenance of electrical machinery and equipment

 Table 2. Degree of importance of knowledge that an electrician should have in respect of the installation and maintenance of electrical machinery and devices according to the opinion of employers

No.

Knowledge

Poland

Germany

Portugal

Importance indicator

1.

Rules and regulations for occupational health and safety, fire protection, environment protection and the ergonomics during the installation and maintenance of electrical machinery and devices.

4.5

5.0

3.8

2.

Electrical machinery and devices (types, characteristics, classification).

3.6

5.0

4.2

3.

The structure of electrical machinery (mechanical and electromagnetic).

3.1

5.0

3.8

4.

Technical documentation of the devices (block diagrams and guide drawings)

4.0

5.0

3.5

5.

The basics of electrical engineering and electronics.

3.4

5.0

3.8

6.

Standards and regulations for the installation of electrical machinery and equipment.

3.4

5.0

3.9

7.

Principles of installation and maintenance of electrical machinery/equipment

3.8

5.0

3.6

8.

Principles and methods of performance of electrical and mechanical connections

4.5

5.0

3.1

9.

Measurement instruments and methods

3.9

5.0

4.2

10.

Methods of locating and principles of removal of defects in the machinery and equipment

3.6

5.0

3.7

11.

Principles and methods of maintenance of machinery and equipment

3.3

5.0

3.3

12.

The basics of entrepreneurship

2.6

5.0

2.2

13.

Principles of starting and conducting an economic activity

2.4

5.0

1.8

Note: The color blue represents knowledge of minor importance - the importance indicator is equal to, greater than 3.5.

Source: Own study

 

Table 3. Degree of importance of skills that an electrician should have in respect of the installation and maintenance of electrical machinery and devices according to the opinion of employers

No.

Skills

Poland

Germany

Portugal

Importance indicator

1.

Organize the workplace in line with the rules and regulations for occupational health and safety, fire protection, environment protection and the ergonomics during the installation and maintenance of electrical machinery and devices.

4.5

5.0

3.8

2.

Classify the electrical machinery and devices, specify their technical parameters.

3.5

5.0

2.6

3.

Differentiate between the parameters of elements and components of electrical equipment and determine their functions.

3.7

5.0

3.9

4.

Recognize the electrical machinery and devices and their elements, determine their purpose.

3.7

5.0

3.8

5.

Differentiate between structural elements used in electrical machinery and devices.

3.2

5.0

3.6

6.

Read and make drawings and diagrams of electrical machinery and devices

4.1

5.0

3.5

7.

Mount systems of power supply, control, adjustment and protection of electrical machinery and devices based on the documentation.

4.3

5.0

3.2

8.

Select tools for installation of electrical machinery and devices.

3.9

5.0

3.4

9.

Perform mechanical installation of electrical and electric components.

3.8

5.0

3.6

10.

Check the compliance of the performed work with the documentation.

4.0

5.0

2.9

11.

Take measurements of parameters of electrical machinery and equipment.

3.8

5.0

3.9

12.

Locate typical damage of electrical machinery and equipment.

3.7

5.0

4.1

13.

Plan the sequence of actions performed during the disassembly and installation of electrical machinery and devices.

4.0

5.0

2.7

14.

Perform the replacement of worn or damaged elements and components of electrical machinery and devices.

3.6

5.0

4.0

15.

Perform the replacement of damaged control and protection elements of electrical machinery and equipment.

3.8

5.0

3.6

16

Check the correctness of the performed installation based on the documentation.

4.1

5.0

3.4

17.

Perform inspections and maintenance of electrical machinery and equipment.

3.5

5.0

3.0

18.

Check the operation of electrical machinery and equipment after installation and maintenance.

3.7

5.0

3.5

19.

Establish and conduct an economic activity in the electrical industry.

2.1

5.0

2.9

Note: The color blue represents skills of minor importance - the importance indicator is equal to, greater than 3.5.

Source: Own study

 

Professional competencies K2 - Installation and maintenance of electrical systems

 Table 4. Degree of importance of knowledge that an electrician should have in respect of the installation and maintenance of electrical systems according to the opinion of employers

No.

Knowledge

Poland

Germany

Portugal

Importance indicator

2.

Principles and methods of releasing persons that were electrocuted from voltage and rescuing them.

4.4

5.0

3.9

3.

Standards and regulations governing the execution of electrical systems

3.5

5.0

3.9

4.

Construction and types of electrical systems

3.9

5.0

3.9

5.

Symbols used in technical documentations for electrical systems

4.1

5.0

3.3

6.

Accessories, tools and methods used during the execution of electrical systems

4.3

5.0

4.0

7.

Principles and methods of construction and operation of electrical systems

4.2

5.0

3.6

8.

Principles and methods of performance of electrical and mechanical systems connections

4.4

5.0

3.8

9.

Methods of locating and removing defects in the electrical system

3.6

5.0

3.3

10.

Operation of devices, electric power systems and grids with voltage not exceeding 1kV

3.5

5.0

3.6

11.

Principles and methods of repairing power tools and electrical machinery in respect of the replacement of power cables with damaged insulation and the replacement of brushes in commutators

3.3

5.0

3.4

12.

Principles and methods of replacing bearings in power tools and induction motors, sharpening drills and cutters, other locksmith works

2.7

5.0

2.8

Note: The color blue represents knowledge of minor importance - the importance indicator is equal to, greater than 3.5.

Source: Own study

 

Table 5. Degree of importance of skills that an electrician should have in respect of the installation and maintenance of electrical systems according to the opinion of employers

No.

Skills

Poland

Germany

Portugal

Importance indicator

1.

Organize the workplace in line with the rules and regulations for occupational health and safety, fire protection, environment protection and the ergonomics during the performance of electrical installation.

4.6

4.4

3.1

2.

Release persons that were electrocuted from voltage and rescue them.

4.4

4.4

2.9

3.

Adhere to the applicable standards and regulations in the performance of electrical systems

3.9

4.4

3.3

4.

Identify the type o electrical systems and characterize their structure

4.1

3.9

3.6

5.

Use the technical documentation of electrical systems

4.3

4.3

3.6

6.

Choose cables, accessories, tools and methods relevant to the performance and repair of various types of electrical systems

4.4

4.1

3.0

7.

Perform temporary connections

3.8

4.4

2.6

8.

Perform temporary systems

3.8

4.4

2.9

9.

Perform and repair internal electrical systems

4.2

4.2

3.7

10.

Perform and repair external electrical systems: teletechnical, signaling, protection of property and lightning protection

3.8

3.5

3.9

11.

Perform cable connections or overhead connections of buildings

4.1

3.9

3.1

12.

Perform connections of electrical and mechanical systems (bolted, clamp and soldered)

4.0

4

3.2

13.

Check the correctness of operation of internal and external electrical systems

4.0

4.1

3.3

14.

Locate and remove defects in internal and external electrical systems

3.8

4.2

4.0

15.

Operate devices, electric power systems and grids with voltage not exceeding 1kV

3.7

3.9

3.6

16.

Use simple operation and maintenance documentation of electrical machinery and devices

4.0

4.3

3.4

17.

Repair power tools and electrical machinery, replace power supply cables with damages insulation, replace  brushes in commutators.

3.2

3.8

3.5

18.

Replace  bearings in power tools and induction motors, sharpen drills and cutters, other locksmith works

2.7

3.5

2.8

Note: The color blue represents skills of minor importance - the importance indicator is equal to, greater than 3.5.

Source: Own study

  

 Comparative analysis of personal and social competencies for the profession of electrician

Table 6. The degree of importance of personal and social competencies relevant to the profession of electrician, according to opinions of employers

No.

Competencies

personal and social

Poland

Germany

Portugal

Importance indicator

1.

He/she bears responsibility for the execution of tasks

4.5

3.6

3.6

2.

He/she is creative and consistent in the execution of tasks

3.4

3.8

3.1

3.

He/she respects the professional confidentiality

3.8

3.9

2.9

4.

He/she has the ability to assess his/her actions and actions of their team and take responsibility for their consequences

4.1

3.6

3.8

5.

He/she works partially on his/her own and takes on a cooperation in the organized conditions

4.2

3.9

3.4

6.

He/she recognizes his/her own educational needs, updates their knowledge and improves professional skills

3.6

3.8

4.2

7.

He/she can cope with stress

3.4

3.8

2.8

8.

He/she can negotiate the terms of arrangements

2.7

 

1.8

Note: The color blue represents personal and social competences of minor importance - the importance indicator is equal to, greater than 3.5.

Source: Own study

 

Comparative analysis of key competences for the profession of electrician

 Table 7. The degree of importance of key competencies relevant to the profession of electrician, according to opinions of employers

No.

Key competences

Poland

Germany

Portugal

Importance indicator

1.

Problems solving

3.7

4

3.9

2.

Teamwork

4.0

3.8

3.2

3.

Communicating in the mother tongue and in foreign languages

3.3

3.5

2.7

4.

Exerting influence/leadership

2.1

2.8

2.7

5.

Planning and organizing work

4.0

3.7

3.1

6.

Physical fitness

4.3

3.8

3.4

7.

Reading comprehension and writing skills

4.1

3.4

3.3

8.

Mathematical skills

3.3

3.7

4.0

9.

Information search, selection and critical analysis skills

3.5

3.6

2.7

10.

IT and modern communication technology skills

3.8

3.4

2.1

Source: Own study

  

Graph 1. Key competencies profile for the profession of an electrician - Poland

wykres 1 pl en

 Source: Own study

  

Graph 2. Key competencies profile for the profession of an electrician - Germany

wykres 2 pl en

Source: Own study

  

Graph 3. Key competencies profile for the profession of an electrician - Portugal

wykres 3 pl en

Source: Own study

 

Summary

The consistency/divergence of the opinions on the professional competences expected by employers from each partner country stems from their experience in hiring employees, company size, varying degrees of industry specialization, demand for the product/service or innovation of the company. These depend on the specificity of the local, regional or national labor market and the degree of technological development in a given country.

Divergences in the employers' expectations can also stem from the differing manners of description of professional competences each of these countries utilizes.

The comparative analysis gives a general idea of the significance of the professional competences in the analyzed professions, expected by employers in individual countries. It may serve as the basis for further studies of the demand among employers for employees with particular competences.